In reply, some voluntarists have sought to understand the stability of the moral laws in light of God's immutably fixed, necessary nature. Some critics appeal to the possibility that the cosmos has an infinite history to bolster and re-introduce the uniqueness objection. However, if you see a contradiction, say, in describing a being who is at once omniscient and omnipotent, you may well have good grounds for concluding that God's existence is impossible. In the cosmic case, is it clear that if there were a reason justifying the existence of evil, we would see it? One of the most sustained lessons from the encounter between positivism and the philosophy of religion is the importance of assessing the meaning of individual beliefs in comprehensive terms. Is simply too malleable (this has been called the myth of the given ), often reflecting prior conceptual judgments and, once one appreciates the open-textured character of experience, it may be proposed that virtually any experience can verify or provide some evidence for anything. But it has been speculatively extended by those proposing a defense rather than a theodicy to cover other evils which might be brought about by supernatural agents other than God. May refer to that which is willed by God even though many people are not aware of (or even deny) the existence of God?
In relation to scientific accounts of the natural world, such enquiries into causes make abundant sense and are perhaps even essential presuppositions of the natural sciences. Such philosophical work requires an investigation into the nature and limit of human thought. We evaluate people groups as responsible or not, depending how seriously they take their responsibilities four general world philosophies. There is an old philosophical precept that from the fact that something exists, it follows that it is possible ( ab esse ad posse valet consequentia ). Critical assessments of positivism can be found in work by, among others, Alvin Plantinga, Richard Swinburne, and John Foster. This work built on the even earlier work on religious language by Philo (20 BCE 50 CE), Clement (150 215), and Origen of Alexandria (185 259). In our own human case it appears that intentional, purposive explanations are legitimate and can truly account for the nature and occurrence of events. By understanding God's goodness in terms of God's being (as opposed to God's will alone), we come close to the non-voluntarist stand. Is the world as we know it something that necessarily exists?
Wittgenstein launched an attack on what has been called the picture theory of meaning, according to which statements may be judged true or false depending upon whether reality matches the picture represented by the belief. But this only works if there is no necessity of eternity analogous to the necessity of the past. Another objection is that it makes no sense to think of a being existing necessarily; Brian Davies and others have contended that what it means for God to be good is different from what it means for an agent to be morally good (Davies 2006). In the great monotheistic traditions, God is thought of as without any kind of beginning or end. A God outside of time might know that at midnight on 1 July 2010 certain things occur, but could God know when it is now that time? If one knows that it is possible that six is the smallest perfect number then one has good reason to believe that. Other defenders use their specific tradition to deal with ostensibly competing claims based on different sorts of religious experiences. Would the presence of light be successfully explained if one claimed that the light was a reflection of light from another mirror, and the light in that mirror came from yet another mirror, and so on to infinity?
The theory has formidable critics and defenders. But before turning to this material, it is important to consider a debate within philosophy of religion that was largely inspired by the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. Others argue that the cosmos has a necessary, sustaining cause from instant to instant. Essay in philosophical investigations. Arguments to a sustaining cause of the cosmos claim that explanations of why something exists now cannot be adequate without assuming a present, contemporaneous sustaining cause. Stephen Metcalf on the late philosopher Richard Rorty and his 1998 book “Achieving Our Country, ” which discussed left’s tragic loss of national pride enjoy proficient custom services provided professional academic writers. The latter view has been termed theistic voluntarism. We guarantee the authenticity of your paper, whether it's an essay or a dissertation. Second, few philosophers today advance a single argument as a proof. It has been argued that among its array of great-making qualities (omniscience and omnipotence) would be necessary existence. There are plausible examples of vicious infinite regresses that do not generate explanations: